system analysis and design

Discussion in 'QnA (read only)' started by shivi4, Dec 23, 2005.

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  1. shivi4

    shivi4 New Member

    Oct 4, 2004
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    i have to make presentation on system analysis and desin

    on the topic of information gathering please someone tell

    me where i can get information

    i have already search google where i havent find any constructive

  2. shyam911

    shyam911 New Member

    Mar 16, 2005
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  3. OP

    shivi4 New Member

    Oct 4, 2004
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    i want something related to information gathering techniques
  4. Baroon

    Baroon New Member

    Nov 23, 2005
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    Very awkward topic. Can you feed in more info regarding your project
  5. aadipa

    aadipa New Member

    Feb 12, 2004
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    Palghar, Mumbai
  6. OP

    shivi4 New Member

    Oct 4, 2004
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    Information Gathering

    · Kind of Information: Before the analyst gathers any information, he must know what to gather. Normally information regarding the following is collected.
    a) Organization
    b) User Staff
    c) The work

    a) Organization: This covers the general information about the organization. The following information are collected:
    i) Policies
    ii) Goals
    iii) Objectives
    iv) Organizational structure

    · Policies are guidelines that determine the conduct of business.
    · Policies are translated into rules and procedures for achieving goals.

    b) User Staff: Normally the following information regarding the user is collected.
    i) Authority Relationship
    ii) Job functions
    iii) Information requirements
    iv) Interpersonal Relationships

    c) The Work: The work describes how the candidate system works in the real life. Normally the following information is collected.
    i) Work Flow
    ii) Methods/Procedures
    iii) Work Schedules

    · Information is gathered from 2 principal sources:
    a) Internal Sources (i.e.), Personnel or written documents within the organization
    b) From the environment.

    · Internal Sources are:
    a) Financial Reports
    b) Personnel Staff
    c) Professional Staff
    d) Documentation etc.

    · External Sources are:
    a) Vendors
    b) Government Documents
    c) Newspaper, etc.

    · Information–Gathering Tools:
    · No two projects are ever same. So the analyst decides the information-gathering tool and how it is implemented.
    · Information must be acquired accurately, methodically, under the right conditions and with minimum interruption to user personnel.
    · Each and every tool has a special function.

    1. Review literature, procedures and forms
    2. On-site Observation
    3. Interviews
    4. Questionnaires

    · Very few problems are unique
    · Increasing number of software means solutions becomes standardized.
    So first step is to search for manuals.
    · Sometimes it may be outdated/may provide information which are useless to the analyst. So the analyst must be careful about this.
    · Procedure Manuals and forms describe the format and functions of the present system. (Existing information system) sometimes it is not up-to-date/do not exist.

    Forms: Printed materials are widely used to capture and provide useful information.

    Onsite Observation: It is the process of recognizing and noting people, objects and occurrences to obtain ‘information’

    · An analyst is a observer from the environment so he must be neutral
    · User staff must participate freely and openly

    Major Objectives:
    1. To get as close as possible to the real system.

    Guidelines for onsite observation:

    1. Kind of the system
    2. What it does
    3. Case History
    4. Primary/Secondary contribution of the organization.

    · Analyst follow the rules listed below:
    a) More likely to listen than to talk
    b) Not to give any advice
    c) Avoid arguments with the person being observed.
    d) Avoid hostility /partiality

    · Observation Methods:
    a) Natural or Contrived: User’s place/observer’s place
    b) Obtrusive or Unobtrusive: user knows/not known
    c) Direct or Indirect: Analyst actually observes/mechanically with the help of videotapes etc.
    d) Structured or unstructured: Observation is done according to a proper plan/not in an organized order or not.

    · Problems with observation:
    a) Entry without permission (Intruding)
    b) Attitude and subjects derived later on.
    c) Error due to misinterpretation/selective observation

    Questions considered during observation:

    1. Behaviour observed/can’t be represented in other ways
    2. What data cannot be accessed more easily or more reliably
    3. Assurance given that the process is not disturbed by the observation.
    4. What interpretation needs to be made about observational data
    5. Skill levels required and available for the actual observation.

    · Interviews and Questionnaires

    Interview: Face to face question answer session

    · Used for:
    a) Exploratory device to identify relations or verify information
    b) Capture information as it exists

    · The interviewer may gain respondent’s time and attention but cannot be certain of the accuracy of the information gathered during the interview.
    · Advantages of the interview are:
    a) Flexibility
    b) Better opportunity than questionnaire
    c) Effective technique for eliciting information about complex subjects.
    d) Ego (people enjoy being interviewed)

    · Drawback of Interview
    a) Preparation Time- More
    b) Take long time to conduct- time as well as money

    · Interviewing is an art
    · Analysts learn it through experience
    · Art - creating a permissive situation in which the answers offered are reliable/respondent is relaxed.
    · The interview must be arranged so as to provide minimal interruption and assume privacy
    · Mostly neutral location is preferred
    · Appointments should be made well in advance.

    · Guidelines to a successful Interview: should be approached in a logical manner
    a) Stage setting: Creating a proper environment by providing –
    1) i) Purpose of the interview
    iv) Why the subject is selected.
    2) Evaluates the co-operation of the interviewee

    b) Establishing Rapport: Normally the users hesitate to give information to outsiders
    a) Don’t deliberately mislead the user staff.
    b) Secrecy
    c) Avoid personal involvement in the affairs of the user’s place
    d) Avoid showing of knowledge/sharing information collected from others sources/expert consultant.
    e) Respect the time schedule.
    f) Must not promise anything, which can’t be provided.
    g) Proper dress code/manner
    h) Don’t interrupt the interviewee

    c) Asking Question: Questions must be asked according to the format prepared earlier.
    d) Obtaining the response: good listener + avoid arguments.
    e) Data recording and outcome of interview: care must be taken to record the data for evaluation


    · Generally closed-ended question set in which the user marks the response.

    a) Economical and less skill required
    b) Serve to large number of individuals simultaneously
    c) Uniformity of questions
    d) Secrecy Factor
    e) Time factor(more time to think than an interview)

    a) Less returns
    b) Difficulty in open-ended questions.

    · Types of Interview/Questionnaires
    a) Unstructured
    b) Structured

    · Unstructured option allows the user to answer questions freely.
    · In unstructured approach, the question is based on a proper format/logic etc.

    · Five Major varieties of closed questions:
    a) Fill-in-the-blanks
    b) Dichotomous (Yes/No type)
    c) Ranking Scales
    d) Multiple Choice
    e) Rating Scales

    · Advantages of Open Ended Question: Ideal incase of new ideas.
    · Disadvantages of Open Ended Question:
    a) Interpretation of subjective answers
    b) Time Consumption is more
    · On the other hand closed ended questions are
    a) Quick to analyze
    b) Costly to prepare
    · Procedure for Questionnaire preparation: Six steps are there
    a) Problem Definition (What data should be collected)
    b) Type of the questionnaire (Open/Closed)
    c) Questionnaire topics/questions
    d) Editing for technical bias etc.
    e) Dry Run (Pre Test)
    f) Final Editing
    · Reliability of data from respondents:
    Error Sources:
    a) Reports collected from many users may vary
    b) Respondents failure to remember what did happen
    c) Inability of both user/analyst
    · Reliability leads to dependability, consistency and accuracy
    · Validity

    this is the notes on which i have make presentation

    where i can get more info
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